Electric cars 2022: the guide

Find out if an electric car is right for you with our full guide to choosing, buying, owning and charging an EV

BuyaCar team
Dec 3, 2021

The age of the electric car is certainly feeling like it's closer than ever. With record sales of electric cars yet again in 2020 and record sales forecast for 2021. There's also the promise of plenty more brand new models arriving over the next 12 months, so you definitely aren't alone if you're considering making the switch to an EV.

Along with the introduction of tougher restrictions upon petrol and especially diesel-powered cars, like London's ULEZ and other clean air zones, and national fuel shortages hitting headlines, the desirability of electric models is becoming stronger by the month, but are they really an option for the average driver?

Eventually, you won't have much of a choice, given the government's plans to ban the sale of new petrol and diesel cars by 2030. But for the time being at least, there is still time to deliberate a little more over your options, and that's good, because the electric car market has changed a lot in recent years.

While models like the Nissan Leaf and Hyundai Kona Electric made EV motoring more mainstream, and have evolved to offer over 200 miles of range, there's also a new generation of 300-mile plus, rapid-charging models. Earlier cars are more affordable to buy or lease, while the latest EVs can be pricey, but offer staggeringly low running costs in return.

Why get an electric car?

The fact electric cars now have a greater range between charges is a huge boon to the market, as the 'range anxiety' which was once a dealbreaker for a majority of customers is now less of a problem. Not to mention the numerous financial benefits that come from driving an EV, including VED (road tax) exemption, the plug-in car grant, fuel savings and free entry in low emissions zones.

EVs are quieter, cleaner and genuinely enjoyable to drive. Prices are beginning to come down, as more affordable models like the Peugeot e-208 and Skoda Citigo-e iV are now readily available on the used market. They might be cheap in electric car terms, but they are typically still more expensive than their combustion-engined equivalents, the e-208 in particular costs around £7,000 more to buy new than a petrol 208 model. The government's plug-in car grant does help here, but it's still a big jump in price.

So, how do you know when it's the right time to make the switch? We’ve laid out the pros and cons of electric cars right here to help you decide.

What is an electric car?

An electric car (also known as an EV or battery electric vehicle) is powered by one or more electric motors, which get their energy from rechargeable batteries. Unlike petrol or diesel cars, there are no exhaust emissions, which is good news for local air quality, and they are usually much quieter too.

Confusingly, electrified cars aren't quite the same, as they have a petrol or diesel engine combined with an electric motor of some kind. Electrified cars include hybrid vehicles. The result is that emissions are lower, but you still have the convenience of a long range and being able to quickly fill up with fuel when needed.

Electric car grants, incentives and tax benefits

Plug-in car grant

A government plug-in car grant towards the cost of brand new electric cars is now worth £2,500 after being cut from £3,000 in March 2021. It was originally £4,500 in 2018, but has been steadily reduced as more buyers opt for EVs. The grant is also now only available on electric cars costing up to £35,000. The rules were also tightened for plug-in hybrid cars, so none qualify for a government-funded discount.

In theory, plug-in hybrid cars are eligible for the current incentive but they must have carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions under 50g/km and be able to travel at least 70 miles on electric power alone, which none are currently capable of.

Used cars do not benefit from a grant towards the purchase price but buyers can claim up to £500 to fit a home charging point, as can new car customers. More details

VED (road tax) for electric cars

Zero emissions cars (even those costing more than £40,000) are also exempt from paying road tax. Opt for a hybrid or plug-in hybrid however and the savings are much smaller, amounting to just £10 annually after the first year. More details

Electric company car tax

The biggest tax benefits are offered to business car drivers. Electric cars are subject to the lowest Benefit-in-Kind (BiK) rate of company car tax, which can save more than a thousand pounds per year compared with a petrol or diesel car. Company car tax rates for EVs tumbled in April 2020 when the BiK rate for EVs was cut from 16% to 1% for the 2021/22 tax year and 2% for the 2022/23. This means that you'll pay tax on just 2% of an electric car's list price, compared with around 30% for a mid-range petrol Volkswagen Golf. More details

Other electric car benefits

If you live in London it’s worth noting that any car that emits less than 75g/km of CO2 qualifies for exemption from paying the daily Congestion Charge (if registered correctly), and many London boroughs offer free or discounted parking for EVs too.

EVs are also exempt from London's Ultra Low Emission Zone (ULEZ), which was introduced in April 2019, but was expanded to cover a much larger area on 25 October 2021. 

Some manufacturers also offer generous scrappage discounts for anybody who trades in an older petrol or diesel car for an EV.

How to choose an electric car

There are small electric cars, family models and tall sport utility vehicles (SUVs) with five or seven seats, and the choice continues to grow. In some respects, choosing an electric car is the same as any other vehicle: you'll want to consider its practicality, equipment level, comfort, design and how it fits into your budget.

Charging electric cars also remains an important consideration. There's a government grant towards a home charger (called a wallbox) so if you have a driveway or a garage, it should be simple to put your EV on charge overnight. If you don't have off-street parking, then you'll probably be reliant on the public charging network which is growing rapidly, but still has considerable room for improvement. See more details on charging below.

Most electric cars can travel at least 100 miles between charges, which should be enough for most users in their day-to-day life. If you frequently need to travel further in a day, then you may be better off considering a car with a range of 200 miles or more and rapid-charging. Bear in mind that official figures (much like official mpg results) tend to be optimistic about the distance you'll travel on a full battery, especially in the winter months, when cold weather can affect the range of older EVs in particular. You'll find real-world range estimates in BuyaCar's buying guides, and more information on the range of electric cars below.

Electric car prices tend to be more expensive than for an equivalent petrol or diesel model. Although you will save on fuel, online calculators can help work out how long it will take for lower EV running costs to claw back the difference. It's also worth noting that the cheapest used examples of some popular EVs like the Renault Zoe and previous-generation Nissan Leaf don't always include the batteries. Instead, the battery is leased from the manufacturer, with a monthly cost from around £50 per month, depending on your annual mileage.

Scroll down for current used prices, or click to view all prices.

Renault Zoe

Used deals from £8,691
Monthly finance from £194*

Nissan Leaf

Used deals from £20,995
Monthly finance from £275*

Jaguar I-Pace

Used deals from £46,880
Monthly finance from £564*

Electric cars: the good

The combination of Government grants and tough environmental legislation has encouraged manufacturers to develop more electric cars. As a result, you can buy some with supercar-like acceleration, some with seven seats, and some with just as much practicality as conventional vehicles. The table below indicates how much the market has grown in just a four-year period.

2013

2017

EVs available to buy

9

59

Range from a single charge (based on Renault Zoe)

130 miles

250 miles

Number of European charging stations

30,000

120,000

Alternative fuel vehicle (EV & hybrid) UK registrations*

32,371

119,821

Source: Sophus3/SMMT

From a driver's perspective, a modern electric car is also amazingly smooth (there are no gears for instance) and quiet to drive. They can be quite good fun, too, because electric motors give an instant response when you touch the accelerator, making many modern EVs extremely quick off the mark.

What’s more, although range anxiety (that is, the fear of running out of battery charge) is often cited as a major factor in people not wanting to own an electric car, the reality is that even the most basic models are able to cover several times the average UK journey distance which, according to the National Travel Survey, is just 8.9 miles.

With the cost of battery technology coming down so too have electric car prices, meaning there’s an increasing number on offer that can be bought for little more - if any - than their petrol or diesel equivalents. Running costs are significantly cheaper too, both in terms of servicing and the price of electricity compared with petrol or diesel.

Electric cars: the bad

While electric cars might be good for improving local air quality, their environmental credentials still depend very much on how the electricity for the batteries is generated in the first place - because if it’s not from a renewable energy such as solar, hydro or wind turbines, you’re still looking at sources such as coal, oil or other fossil fuels.

If you tend to travel longer distances, range might still be a problem too, as well as the fact that there still aren’t as many charging points as there are petrol stations, and that charging a battery takes significantly longer than filling a fuel tank.

Then there’s the fact that the range of an electric car can vary dramatically according to conditions – you will not, for example, get as far in the dead of winter as you would on a warm and sunny day, as the battery holds less charge in cold weather. This especially effects older EVs with passive battery cooling, as newer models are using thermal management to heat up the battery in cold weather to improve range.

Finally, if you don’t have a safe, convenient place to plug in at home or work, it’s unlikely to be a viable option: running an extension lead down the pavement outside your flat won't make you popular when the neighbours trip over it.

The practicalities of Electric cars

Electric car charging stations

If you opt for an electric car and have off-street parking the ideal solution is to install a charging point at home. These are offered in either slow (3kW) or fast (7kW) power ratings, which will take approximately 8-12 hours or 4-8 hours respectively to fully charge a mainstream model such as a Nissan Leaf or Renault Zoe.

Whichever option you choose, a qualified electrician will need to conduct a survey to make sure your wiring can handle the load.

There are also public charging points that allow you to top up when you’re travelling long distances.
These range from slow chargers to rapid chargers, the latter able to offer up to an 80% charge in less than 30 minutes, as long as your car is compatible.

Some public chargers require you to sign up to a subscription service or open an account with the charging services you’re most likely to use. If you live in London, for example, and have no off-street parking, you’ll need a subscription with Source London, which has 7kW chargers (both Type 1 and Type 2), as that’s the cheapest way to charge (without a subscription, the cost of a minute’s electricity is almost double).

BP Pulse' (formerly Chargemaster) network has the most chargers around the country – in the region of 8,000 – which can be accessed using a smartphone app (which you have to pre-load with at least £20 of credit) or you can pay a monthly subscription, and some of its chargers then free to use. Some of its newer chargers are also available with tap and pay.

One network that doesn’t require membership or an app is Instavolt, which accepts payment using a contactless card. This is the future – it's the model found in many European countries – but until all the providers agree to accept payments this way, Instavolt is a pioneer.

Charging shouldn’t take too long, as most chargers are underused at the moment. However, you can be unlucky and either find a non-electric car parked by a charger, or another one using it. The Ecotricity chargers are also experiencing software issues, so their reliability is not to be taken for granted until the company sorts out its issues. This is extremely inconvenient when attempting to charge on the UK’s motorway network and might require a detour in order to plug in. The other drawback is that its older units have two charging cables – one for CHAdeMO, one for 43kW AC or 50kW CCS – but only one can be used at any one time, effectively halving the number of available chargers.

If you visit the appropriately named Zap-Map website, you’ll be offered more than 16,000 locations for charging – you can search for the nearest site with a charger compatible with your EV, too.

Electric car range

Unsurprisingly, the most talked-about aspect of electric cars is the range they offer on a full charge. This is improving all the time, to the extent that an upmarket model like a Tesla Model S can cover more than 400 miles on a single charge.

Better still, even mainstream EVs are becoming much more viable with models such as the Nissan Leaf e+ and Renault Zoe now able to provide a realistic 200-plus miles of travel between charges.

You may see higher range estimates. That's because all of these cars must undergo an official laboratory test to calculate their range, which can be optimistic enough that manufacturers also supply a separate "real-world" figure, which is much closer to the distance you'll be able to travel between charges.

Meanwhile plug-in hybrid cars such as the Hyundai Ioniq Plug-in Hybrid have smaller batteries but can keep going as long as you can keep their petrol or diesel engines supplied with fuel.

How much does an electric car cost to charge?

A full charge overnight at your home will cost about £3.00, depending on your electricity tariff. That’s just a fraction of what the petrol would cost for that distance. Research carried out by the AA, for example, shows that electric car owners who charge at home using off-peak electricity can cut the running costs of their car to about 2.5p per mile compared with around 16p per mile for a petrol car.

Fast public chargers can seem expensive. For example, Ecotricity charges 30p/kWh of energy used. This is more than you'll pay for energy at home (on a tariff geared towards EV drivers charging at night), but this is for a high-voltage charger, which can charge the battery of some vehicles to 80% of its capacity in less than an hour.

Tesla's Supercharger charging posts are impressively fast, comprehensively located and reliable, as well as being free to use for many owners of its Model X and Model S vehicles.

Is an electric car right for me?

The fast-improving capabilities of electric cars means they are becoming an increasingly viable option for many motorists. However, that is still not to say they will suit everybody.

Andrew Mee, senior forecasting editor at car valuation firm cap hpi, says the ideal electric car driver is “someone whose normal daily mileage fits within the battery range of the car, and also has access to convenient charging points when they need them, for example at work and/or at home. Also, a motorist who is prepared to plan ahead when driving occasional longer distances that will require battery charging mid-route and will not mind the time taken to carry out this charging.”

If that doesn’t sound like you, it’s not to say an electric car still can’t make sense, says Edmund King, President of the AA: “For many people an EV can make a huge amount of sense as a second car. They aren’t affected by cold running unlike a conventional engine which needs to warm up for maximum efficiency, so are ideal for short trips to the station, to work and to the shops.”

London residents can also factor in exemption from the £15.00 daily congestion charge, £12.50 ULEZ charge and potentially more savings too, as some London boroughs offer free or discounted parking for EVs.

In short, if you’re bashing up and down a motorway and doing 20,000 miles a year, you’ll be better off with an efficient diesel or plug-in hybrid for now, as the current crop of electric cars aren’t best suited to those kind of miles. However, if your commute involves, say, 30 or so miles of driving with an occasional journey of around 150 miles, an electric car could be ideal, particularly if you’ve got space for off-street parking and a home charger.

 

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