What is an MoT?
All you need to know about the inspection that ensures used cars are safe and legal: your guide to the MOT
The MOT test is an official inspection of a car’s condition and roadworthiness that all cars over 3 years old are legally required to have. Mots must be carried out by a specialised technician at an approved testing station - often part of a garage. A car’s first test should take place on the third anniversary of its registration, and then each year thereafter.
If a car passes the test, it is awarded a pass certificate that is valid for 12 months. The test will analyse the car's condition on one particular day, but anything could happen to the car afterwards, so it cannot be assumed that the car will be in the same condition, even as soon as a day after the test.
If you are shopping for a classic car, cars registered over 40 years ago that have not undergone substantial mechanical changes within the last 30 years are exempt from an MOT inspection. You can still opt to undergo a test voluntarily if you wish to ensure the vehicle’s safety, though.
This is because of unpredictable factors such as parts breaking, the car potentially being involved in a collision, or even rust setting in. Perishable parts such as the tyres can also wear down quickly. While they may have had enough tread to pass an MOT test, if a car covers thousands of miles in the following months, this could be enough to take them below the legal limit, offering very poor grip, especially in the wet. As a result, even with a valid MOT, you will still need to keep tabs on the condition of the car throughout the year.
The MOT test does not inspect any non-safety-related areas, so a used car’s MOT certificate is not a guarantee of it being fully mechanically sound. Non-safety-related systems, such as air-conditioning, may not be working, even with a full MOT. However, the test does confirm that the car was roadworthy when assessed and highlights both serious and minor safety issues at that time.
Testing takes around 40 minutes and the maximum it will cost you up to a maximum of £54.85, although you can get it for much less if you shop around. MOT and service bundle deals are also common, and can be a great way to save money on both of these essentials. Some of the best value MOT test centres are often ones run by councils, but these are not often advertised but are open to the public.
When purchasing a used car over three years old you can also check the MOT history online to see what was flagged on the previous MOTs and whether it has passed or failed each test. This report is accessed by simply entering the car's number plate, and shows whether the car passed its previous MOTs and if there were any advisories. Advisories are elements that need to be monitored to ensure they don't become unsafe. The advisory categories were changed to dangerous, major and minor in 2018.
Looking at the MOT history can give you a feel for how reliable the car has been to date and whether it has been looked after. A car that has had advisories for the same elements year after year probably hasn't been meticulously cared for. Meanwhile, another model which has passed every year with no advisories mentioned is more likely to have been well maintained - either being regularly serviced or having any issues quickly fixed. But remember, this is only a rough guide.
When does a car need an MOT?
- A car first needs to undergo an MOT when it reaches the third anniversary of the date of its first registration and every 12 months after that.
- You can have a car tested up to one month, minus a day, before the current certificate runs out and still keep the old renewal date.
- Driving a car without a valid MOT could mean a driving ban, a fine of up to £2,500 and three penalty points on your licence.
- You can only legally drive a car with no MOT if you are driving it to the location of a pre-booked test. The police will require proof of this booking if they stop you.
What's tested in the MOT?
What an MOT tests
Any features that make the car:
- safe to drive
- safe for other road users and
- safe for the environment
This means lights, brakes, steering, seatbelts, body structure, exhaust emissions and even the drivers' view of the road.
What an MOT does not test
- The condition of the engine, clutch or gearbox. So don't think of it as a car inspection/service on the cheap.
- Panels such as plastic sills and engine undertrays are not removed in the test. These can trap moisture and cause rust, which wouldn't necessarily be spotted by the tester.
How does an MOT test work?
Since May 2018, faults have been classified under three different labels: minor, major and dangerous.
- Minor faults, previously known as ‘advisories’, represent potential safety risks, but will not prevent the car from passing its MOT.
- Major faults represent a significant safety risk and will result in a ‘fail’, but it will still be possible for you to drive the car from the MOT centre to a garage for repairs (if the MOT centre cannot undertake the work).
- Dangerous faults are considered such a safety risk that you will not be able to drive the car until they are fixed; this may mean you’ll have to get it towed to a garage for remedial work.
By way of example, a steering mechanism with a slight oil leak would be classed as a minor fault, but if it was dripping oil, that would be a major. If the steering wheel was in danger of becoming detached, meanwhile, that would be flagged as a dangerous fault.
The intention here is to give owners a clearer idea as to the seriousness of the car’s faults. The term ‘dangerous’ is also in line with the Road Traffic Act which says that driving a vehicle in a dangerous condition is a criminal offence.
How is the current MOT different from the previous one?
- Under the old rules, the items that caused a car to fail were simply marked as ‘failed’. If a fault was not considered to be serious but still a potential safety risk, it was described as an advisory, but didn't cause the car to fail.
- The test is now also tougher on diesel particulate filters (DPFs), which are devices designed to trap and destroy exhaust particulates. They became mandatory on diesel cars in 2009, although some cars were fitted with them before then. Testers will refuse to test a car if they believe the DPF has been removed or tampered with.
- Any DPF fitted that emits ‘visible smoke of any colour’ from the car’s exhaust is considered a major fault and constitutes a fail.
What are the most common failures?
Lights and signals lead the list of the most common failures, followed by tyres, suspension and brakes. The windscreen, wipers and mirrors related issues are also common. With this in mind, you may want to check these elements ahead of the MOT yourself if you are able to, or arrange a service and have them checked at the time, to avoid failing the MOT and having to get the car booked in again.
How can I check a car’s MOT status?
Visit the government’s MOT status check website and enter the car’s registration. This should give you a rundown of any faults or advisories flagged in the previous MOTs - covering more than a decade. Be aware that if you're buying a car and it has, or has had, a private number plate, it may show up linked to this or the original registration, depending on whether the seller has swapped them over with the DVLA.
If in doubt, ask for both and check both to see which applies on the MOT system, which shows the number plate and the car model (though there is no guarantee the seller hasn't moved the number plate from one model to a new version of the same car). Again, check with the seller to be sure if you're considering buying the car.
When deciding which used cars are worth considering, checking the MOT history can provide an indication of how well a car has been looked after. If a car has had low tyre tread flagged as an advisory one year and a major fault the next, or the same range of issues keep reappearing year after year, the driver may have neglected the car's maintenance and it's possible that car has more faults that aren't yet visible yet.
What if my car fails the MOT test?
You’ll be given a ‘refusal of an MOT certificate’, which will be recorded on the MOT database. If the current MOT is still valid, you can drive the car away but if it has run out, you can only drive it to a garage to have the defects rectified (the garage that did the MOT might be able to fix the car on site), and then to a partial or full re-test.
The retest is free but only if certain components are retested by the same test centre within 24 hours. If the car is retested within 10 days it will only need a partial retest but there may be a charge at the discretion of the test centre.
You can appeal a fail, but before doing this be sure to discuss any problems with the test centre. If you’re still not satisfied, visit the DVSA complaints website and complete the online form.
Although you are permitted to drive your car to a garage to have it repaired before retesting (provided it doesn’t have a ‘dangerous’ fault), you could still be fined up to £2,500 for driving a car on the road in an unroadworthy condition, so it’s probably safer to leave the car with the garage that tested it, for repair.
What if I don't have my car tested?
You are not able to take it on the road unless you are driving to a garage for repairs, or to the test centre. If you are caught driving without an MOT, you could be fined up to £2,500.
Even if you are driving to a garage to get your car repaired, you can still be fined if the police consider it dangerous.
Does my car need servicing if it has an MOT?
Yes. The MOT focuses on areas critical for safety, while a service is designed to keep your car running smoothly and reliably.
Servicing may involve changing air filters or replacing oil, which both help cars to run at their best. Neither of these is covered by an MOT. Getting your car serviced on schedule is often required by your lender if you have a car on finance, too. If you own your vehicle, then regular servicing will make it a more attractive purchase for future buyers, too, and will go some way towards reducing the likelihood of a future breakdown.
How do I spot an MOT test centre?
Garages that are licensed for MOT testing advertise the service widely. They also display the official blue sign with three white triangles (below).
The government also keeps a log of active MOT test stations, which can be found online.